American composer

George Crumb, an influential and deeply American composer, died at 92

Political division and the anxieties of war were a subject Crumb returned to in his 2004 work the winds of fate, for which he arranged songs from the Civil War era. In 2011, director Peter Sellars staged the work, featuring soprano Dawn Upshaw with amplified piano and a percussion quartet.

In a 2011 maintenance with All things Considered, Sellars observed how Crumb had tapped into still unresolved elements of American history. “There’s the same loneliness, bitterness, sourness that these songs reflect from the Civil War period,” Sellars said. “These are American songs from a time when the country was torn apart, and they reflect the kind of emotional intensity of division and also the desire to come together. So the material goes very deep into a still unhealed wound in the American psyche.”

In his later years, Crumb frequently returned to American hymns and spirituals as inspiration: in the 2000s he released more than a dozen arrangements of old American folk pieces which he grouped under the title more large American songbookincluding the winds of fate.

He also found inspiration in many other diverse sources, including the colors and stamps of Debussy’s musicthe poetry of Federica Garcia Lorca and the calls of the humpback whales in his 1971 Vox Balaenae (Voice of the Whale)written for electric flute, electric cello and amplified piano.

He won a Pulitzer Prize in 1968 for his work Echoes of time and the river and a 2001 Grammy Award for his 1977 play child starfor soprano, children’s choir, speaking men’s choir, bell ringers and large orchestra.

Crumb was born October 24, 1929, in Charleston, W.Va. His parents were both professional musicians; his father was a clarinetist and his mother played the cello. He graduated from Mason College of Music and Fine Arts in his hometown (which later became part of the University of Charleston) and earned a master’s degree from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign before heading to at study at the Hochschule für Musik in Berlin as a Fulbright scholar. He received his doctorate in composition from the University of Michigan in 1959.

Crumb was famous for his notated scores – so visually beautiful that some figured in museum exhibits. The score written for a piece from his 1973 collection for solo piano, Makrokosmos IIin the form of a symbol of peace. In a 2002 interview with All things Considered, Crumb said that such non-standard notation, which he used in much of his music, was liberating – not just for him, but for the musicians who played his work. “They don’t think about aligning the pieces vertically,” he said. “They float away from it.”

Crumb attracted a legion of students, both private and at the University of Pennsylvania, where he taught from 1965 to 1995. Many of his students became influential composers in their own right, including Jennifer Higdon, Osvaldo Golijov, Melinda Wagner and Christophe Rouss.

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